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Koblenz: 1st and 2nd Deutsches Eck (German Corner)

Above: West view to Deutsches Eck from Ehrenbreitstein. 2015 photo by Taxiarchos228 (Wladyslaw Sojka). I’ve added the following labels: (1) Seilbahn/Gondola, (2) St. Kastor Basilica, (3) Deutschherrenhaus, (4) first Deutsches Eck, (5) Memorial to German Unity (Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial), (6) reclamation in the late 19th-century, (7) second Deutsches Eck.

Many will know, have seen, or have read about the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) in the German city of Koblenz. Koblenz has plenty to provide: visitors wander into the vineyards to sip on crisp white wine from local grapes, vacation on long cabin-boats to enjoy the river scenery, or explore the surrounding Upper Rhine River Valley.

But Koblenz is also well known by virtue of its name after the junction where the rivers Moselle and Rhine meet. By the first-century AD/CE, the Romans had built for strategic protection a fort1 called “Castellum apud Confluentes”, Latin for “the castle at the confluence”. What most commonly acknowledge as the Deutsches Eck (German corner) is not the original location. Half concealed among the trees some 200 metres back near the Deutschherrenhaus is the first location of the Deutsches Eck.

What follows:

  • a map to the area and my photos from the present-day,
  • a short history of the “Deutsches Eck,” and
  • archival images from the mid-16th century to early 20th century.

Map + my images (A-F by HL)

The locations of the first and second Deutsches Eck are indicated by red cross and orange flag, respectively, in the map below. The approximate shoreline before 1850 is shown as a thick blue line. Click on the “arrow-window” icon at the upper-left corner for the legend.

Deutschherrenhaus, 1st Deutsches Eck, Deutsches Eck, Mosel, Rhine, Koblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Oberes Mittelrheintal, Upper Middle Rhine Valley, UNESCO, World Heritage, fotoeins.com

(A) First Deutsches Eck, with the Cross of the German (Teutonic) Order at the base of the former corner tower. At centre-right is the Gate of the Knights of the German Order, leading into the inner courtyard of the Deutschherrenhaus with its own cross near the rooftop.

1st Deutsches Eck, Deutsches Eck, Mosel, Rhine, Koblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Oberes Mittelrheintal, Upper Middle Rhine Valley, UNESCO, World Heritage, fotoeins.com

(B) Left-centre: cross of the German (Teutonic) Order at the 1st Deutsches Eck. At the location where I made this photo, I would’ve been treading water in the Moselle river before 1850; see the archival images (G) and (H) below.

emorial to German Unity, 2nd Deutsches Eck, Deutsches Eck, Mosel, Rhine, Koblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Oberes Mittelrheintal, Upper Middle Rhine Valley, UNESCO, World Heritage, fotoeins.com

(C) Kaiser Wilhelm equestrian statue and Memorial, inaugurated in 1897.

2nd Deutsches Eck, Deutsches Eck, Mosel, Rhine, Koblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Oberes Mittelrheintal, Upper Middle Rhine Valley, UNESCO, World Heritage, fotoeins.com

(D) From the Kaiser Wilhelm equestrian statue, north to the 2nd Deutsches Eck and confluence or junction of the Moselle and Rhine rivers.

Memorial to German Unity, 2nd Deutsches Eck, Deutsches Eck, Mosel, Rhine, Koblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Oberes Mittelrheintal, Upper Middle Rhine Valley, UNESCO, World Heritage, fotoeins.com

(E) Facing south from 2nd Deutsches Eck: Memorial to German Unity, and flags for 16 German federal states, Germany, the European Union, and the U.S.; Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial.

2nd Deutsches Eck, Deutsches Eck, Mosel, Rhine, Koblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Oberes Mittelrheintal, Upper Middle Rhine Valley, UNESCO, World Heritage, fotoeins.com

(F) Facing north at the 2nd Deutsches Eck, to the German flag and the confluence of the Moselle river (left) with the Rhine.


Short history of the Deutsches Eck

Near the junction where the Moselle river joins the Rhine, St. Kastor Church2 had long been present since its establishment in the 9th-century AD/CE. In 1216, the Deutscher Orden (Teutonic or German Order3) founded at the junction the Deutschherrenhaus or the Deutschordenhaus (House of the Knights of the German Order) including a hospital, all next to St. Kastor Church. The favourable location would soon be called the “Deutscher Ordt” (Place/Ort of the German Order/Orden) and later the “Deutsches Eck” (German Corner).

The Cross of the Teutonic Order (Crux Ordis Teutonicorum) appears at the base of the corner tower as part of the wall surrounding the Deutschherrenhaus. The cross would have been visible to anyone sailing the waters of the two rivers. With the symbol originating from the 13th-century as a black-and-white cross pattée, the emblem formed the basis for the development of the Iron Cross (Eisernes Kreuz) in the early 19th-century4.

Land reclamation north of the Deutschherrenhaus moved the location of the Deutsches Eck to the northeast by about 200 metres by the mid- to late-19th century. Standing prominently at the “new” Deutsches Eck, the Kaiser Wilhelm memorial with an equestrian statue standing 14 metres (46 feet) tall was inaugurated in 1897, built in acknowledgement of the 1871 unification of German lands into a greater Empire. After destruction in the Second World War, the remnants would be reconstructed and incorporated into a larger Memorial to German Unity in 1953. Plaques embedded into the cobblestone provide descriptions in German, English, and French about the context of the memorial in relation to modern Germany.

The second world war and subsequent years took their toll on the Deutschherrenhaus; complete reconstruction of the building began in 1989. By 1992 the site became home to the Ludwig Museum to house the city’s collection of modern and contemporary art. The Museum celebrated in 2016 the 800th anniversary of the Deutschherrenhaus and presence of the Deutscher Orden in Koblenz.

The Deutsches Eck and the city of Koblenz are included within the inscription area for the Upper Middle Rhine Valley UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002.


Archival images (G-K, chronological)

Topographia Archiepiscopatuum Moguntinensis, Treuirensis et Coloniensis, Matthias Merian, 1646

(G) Mid-17th century Koblenz, facing east to the Ehrenbreistein-Philippsburg complex. At right is the Deutschordenhaus (Deutschherrenhaus) with the corner tower and gate indicated; compare this image with images (A) and (B) above. Copper engraving from the 1646 volume “Topographia Archiepiscopatuum Moguntinensis, Treuirensis et Coloniensis” by Matthäus Merian. Sources: Digitale Texte Universität Köln and Münchener DigitalisierungsZentrum.

Coblenz und Umgebung in der Brusttasche. Geschildert von Bar. von Ehrenkreuz. Coblenz 1847.

(H) 1847 map with north up: where the Moselle (Mosel-Fluß) meets the Rhine, with the Deutschherrenhaus at the corner and junction. From “Coblenz und Umgebung in der Brusttasche” (1847); sources: Stadarchiv Koblenz and dilibri Rheinland-Pfalz.

Stadtarchiv Koblenz

(I) About 1875, west view of Koblenz and the Deutsches Eck. I’ve added the white dashed line to outline the construction that would take place over the next two decades until the Kaiser-Wilhelm Memorial was inaugurated in 1897; compare this 1875 view with the modern-day view at the very top of this post. Source: Stadtarchiv Koblenz (unknown photographer).

Stadtarchiv Koblenz

(J) 1888 map with north up. Continuing land reclamation has produced the “Mosel-Werft-Bassin”, extending north from the “old” Deutsches Eck and Deutschherrenhaus. Source: Stadtarchiv Koblenz.

Stadtplan von Koblenz von 1905

(K) 1905 map with north up. The location of the “new” and 2nd Deutsches Eck is clearly labelled upon completion of land reclamation and inauguration of the Kaiser Wilhelm monument. Sources: “Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon” (1905) and Wikimedia Commons.


Notes

1 After over a century of searching throughout Koblenz’s Old Town for existence of the original Roman settlement, construction in 2008 near St. Kastor church revealed the existence of a moat or trench (8-meters long, 4-meters wide, and 2.5-metres deep) for a castle dating back to the Roman Empire.

2 St. Kastor Church was rebuilt in the 11th to 12th-century, destroyed in the Second World War, and subsequently rebuilt in the mid-1950s.

3 During the medieval Crusades, the Deutscher Orden was founded about 1190 AD/CE in the port city of Acre in present-day northern Israel. The order’s present-day headquarters and central archives are in Vienna, Austria with satellites throughout Europe including Germany.

4 The Iron Cross is prominent and central at the 1821 Prussian National Monument on the top of a hill in Berlin’s Viktoriepark (Victoria Park). For the cross and hill, the surrounding area and neighbourhood are commonly known as Kreuzberg (“cross mountain”).

More, in German:

•   Regional Geschichten
•   Schängel Geschichten
•   KuLaDig: Kultur.Landschaft.Digital (“Frührömisches Kastell Koblenz”)
•   Arenberg

Thanks to Koblenz Touristik and Romantic Germany for advice and support. Koblenz is a featured city in the Historic Highlights of Germany. The featured photo at top is by Wladyslaw Sojka (via Wikipedia). I made photos labelled (A) to (F) on 26 and 27 November 2015. This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins.com as http://wp.me/p1BIdT-7IN.

Martin Luther, Diet of Worms, Emperor Charles V, Reformation, Reformation 500, Luther 2017, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

Martin Luther on trial at the Diet of Worms, 1521

For anybody strolling around a German town, a natural point of visual gravity is the spire associated with the town’s cathedral. That’s no different in the town of Worms on the Rhine river between Mainz and Mannheim. What is different in a walk through the gardens next to the cathedral is that “Martin Luther was here” and that events here put his life in danger.

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Worms: world’s largest Reformation Monument

Arriving by German rail or on Rhine river cruises, visitors to the city of Worms (pronounced ‘VOHRmz’) will likely sample the crisp wine from the surrounding Rheinhessen region; learn about the 5th-century Nibelung saga; see important religious symbols including the “crown” that is St. Peter’s Cathedral, and remaining structures from the once-thriving Jewish community which along with Speyer and Mainz formed a medieval league of Jewish communities. Many will retrace Martin Luther’s steps in the city.

In April 1521, Luther was ordered to appear at the Diet (Imperial Parliament) convening in Worms. In the presence of Holy Roman Emperor Charles the Fifth, Luther held firm against charges of heresy and refused to recant. What’s amazing is that Luther survived the triumphant journey from Wittenberg to Worms and, with his subsequent status as “outlaw” from the imperial edict following the Diet, Luther survived departure from Worms because his benefactor, Friedrich III, secretly arranged for Luther to be “kidnapped” and brought to safety at the Wartburg Castle in Eisenach.

The Monument

Worms is home to the world’s largest monument dedicated to the Reformation. Unveiled in mid-1868, German sculptor Ernst Rietschel created the monument with the assistance of Adolf von Donndorf, Gustav Kietz and Johannes Schilling. The entire monument is on a raised square base 12.55 metres (41.2 feet) on a side for a surface area of 157 square metres (1695 square feet). An information pillar provided by the city provides a short description of the monument in four languages.

(German) Luther-Denkmal : Weltdenkmal der Reformation 1868. Luthers Lied “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” wurde umgesetzt in Stein. Dr. Martin Luther steht über den Vorreformatoren, umgeben von Fürsten und Gelehrten sowie Personifikationen von Städten der Reformation.

(English) Luther Monument : The international memorial to the Reformation, 1868. Luther’s hymn, “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott / A mighty fortress is our God” is transformed here into stone. Dr. Martin Luther towers over the earlier reformers, surrounded by electors and friends as well as personifications of the important cities of the Reformation.

(French) Monument de Luther : Monument mondial de la Réforme, 1868. Le chant de Luther “notre Dieu est une place forte” fut materialisé en pierre. Le docteur Martin Luther domine les préreformateurs eux-même entourés de princes électeurs, d’amis ainsi que de personnalités des villes reformées.

(Latin) Monumentum reformationis : Anno MDCCCLXVIII exstructum. Martini Lutheri canticum, quod “Deus, nostra spes et fortitudo” inscriptum est, in lapidem transformatum est. Doctor Martinus Lutherus inter eos, qui iam antea de reformatione ecclesiae meditati sunt, eminet et principes, viri docti, feminae urbes reformationis repraesentantes eum circumstant.


Listed below are 12 major statues representing people and cities supporting the early-Reformation movement and subsequent evolution to Protestantism.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

Luther/Reformation Monument facing northwest. Statues for Waldo, Wycliffe, and Speyer are at the back and not seen in this view.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

Luther Monument, schematic with 12 major statues (described below). In this orientation, north is pointed to the upper-right.

1.   Martin Luther (Germany)

Martin Luther is at the centre of the monument for his primary role in the 16th-century movement; Luther stands on a high pedestal and holds a fist to the Bible referring to his trial at the Diet of Worms in 1521. His stare is directed to the scene of the trial at the former location of the Bishop’s Palace.

Directly below and around the Luther statue are statues of his European predecessors whose respective efforts to reform the Church helped pave the way for Luther: France’s Waldo, England’s Wycliffe, Italy’s Savonarola, and the Czech Hus. Unlike some of these gentlemen, Luther survived the “triple threat”: excommunication from the Catholic Church, exile (in Wartburg Castle), and (multiple threats of) execution.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

Luther at centre

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

Martin Luther: “Hier stehe ich, ich kann nicht anders, Gott helfe mir! Amen!”

Luther on trial

The front-facing panel under Luther’s statue depicts Luther’s 1521 trial in Worms in the presence of Holy Roman Emperor Charles the Fifth (Karl V). Construction of the monument began in 1856 (“begonnen”) and completed in 1868 (“vollendet”).

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Luther vor Kaiser Karl V. in Worms 1521. Denkmal begonnen 1856, vollendet 1868.”

2.   Peter Waldo (France)

As the earliest of Luther’s predecessors, the 12th-century French merchant known as Petrus Waldus (Peter Waldo) surrendered his wealth and founded the Waldensian (Poor Men of Lyon) movement which favoured simple living while rejecting common doctrine (i.e., paying indulgences to escape purgatory). For his troubles and continuing to preach without approval from Rome or from regional authorities, Waldo and his followers were forced to leave Lyon for the Piedmont, southern France, and northern Italy. Waldo was excommunicated by Pope Lucius III in 1184.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Petrus Waldus 1197”

3.   John Wycliffe (England)

University of Oxford scholar and professor John Wycliffe is best known as (one of) the first to translate the Bible into English. He openly questioned the church’s authority over earthly holdings and on civic matters. After condemnation by the Pope, local church officials, and the university, he went into seclusion and died in relative obscurity in 1384. He was posthumously declared a heretic in 1415, and the Catholic Church ordered all his writings be burned. In 1428, Pope Martin the Fifth ordered exhumation; Wycliffe’s bones were unearthed and burned, and the ashes were thrown into the nearby river.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Johann Wiclef 1387”

4.   Girolamo Savonarola (Italy)

Working in Florence, the Italian friar Girolamo (also Hieronymous) Savonarola fought against church corruption, authoritarian rule of the Church, unfair treatment of the poor, excess and decadence. The “bonfire of the vanities” commonly refers to the collection and public burning in Florence of fancy dress, ornaments, books, and art on 7 February 1497 during the Mardi Gras festival. After continual refusals to comply with Rome, Savonarola was excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI in 1497. For his aborted and failed attempt to convert Florence into a reformed state, the citizens turned on Savonarola in 1498; he was arrested, tortured, hung, and burned.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Hieronymus Savonarola 1498”

5.   Jan Hus (Czech)

Because his writings survived, Wycliffe’s work became familiar to Czech scholars. Jan Hus (John Huss) of Prague’s Charles University became influenced by Wycliffe and subsequently began the Boheman Reformation movement. By most accounts, Hus would have had the greatest influence on Luther. And like Wycliffe, Hus denounced church immorality and practices of selling indulgences and ecclesiastical privileges, and supported the idea that the church was about the people, and not about priests, bishops, or the Pope. For refusing to stand down and continuing to espouse Wycliffe’s “heretical opinions”, Hus fell out with the University and was excommunicated by Pope Alexander V in 1410. Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance in 1414 to answer charges of heresy. Upon arrival, Hus was arrested and held for a year. After a mock trial, he was burned at the stake on 6 July 1415, which would prompt the Hussite Wars a few years later. Luther most certainly had Hus in mind when the former was summoned in 1521 to Worms to answer charges of heresy. The Czech people hold Hus in high regard for his independent stance against the long-standing stranglehold of both religion (Catholic church) and external rule (German-dominated Holy Roman Empire). Jan Hus Day is marked annually on the anniversary of his death by burning.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Johann Huss 1415”

6.   Friedrich III, Elector of Saxony

Although he remained Catholic until his death, Friedrich III (known also as Friedrich the Wise) was the Elector of Saxony and Luther’s contemporary and benefactor. Friedrich III founded the University of Wittenberg in 1502, brought Luther to Wittenberg University as theology professor in 1512, and persuaded Philipp Melanchthon to the university to teach Greek in 1518. In 1521, Friedrich III arranged to have Luther “kidnapped” and brought without harm to the Wartburg Castle in Eisenach after Luther was declared an outlaw after his trial at the Diet of Worms. It’s impossible to gauge what further effect and role Luther and his colleagues would have played in the early Reformation had Friedrich III not intervened.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Friedrich der Weise, Kurfürst von Sachsen”

7.   Augsburg (Peace)

Following Luther’s debate with Cajetan in 1518 and declaration of the Augsburg Confessions in 1530, the city of Augsburg was again an important site where a peace treaty in 1555 between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League was signed (see Philip I below). The treaty ended the struggle between Catholics and Protestants, and made Protestantism official within the Holy Roman Empire. Local rulers were allowed to choose Lutheranism or Catholicism as the faith of practice for their respective states.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Augsburger Friede 1555”

8.   Johannes Reuchlin

As a proponent of humanism and an academic expert in Greek and Hebrew languages, German scholar Johannes Reuchlin was the great-uncle of Philipp Melanchthon, providing great influence on the latter’s education and future calling. A common practice of the time, Reuchlin converted his surname into the Greek “Capnion”, a practice which his great-nephew would also follow. Reuchlin also recommended Melanchthon to the University of Wittenberg to become professor of Greek and Hebrew in 1518. Reuchlin quietly supported the printing and distribution of books in Hebrew at a time when his opponents wanted Jews to convert (by force) to the Reformation.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Johannes Reuchlin”

9.   Speyer (Protests)

At the Diet assembled in Speyer in 1529, six princes and 14 Imperial Free Cities lodged an official protest against the ban on Martin Luther declared by the Diet of Worms after Luther’s trial in 1521. The Reformation delegates refused to agree to demands to return to Catholic principles, and eventually submitted a “Letter of Protestation”. Followers of the Lutheran movement became known as “Protestants”, and the movement itself would be called “Protestantism.”

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Protestierende Speyer 1529”

10.   Philipp Melanchthon

Considered the “Second Reformer” after Martin Luther, German Philipp Melanchthon studied Greek and Hebrew; he changed his surname from the German “Schwartzerdt” (‘black earth’) to the Greek version “Melanchthon.” He became professor in Greek and Hebrew in 1518 at Wittenberg University after recommendation from his great-uncle Johannes Reuchlin. He turned his interests to theology and began lecturing on the subject after securing a degree in theology from the university in 1519. A major figure in helping Luther to translate the Old Testament into German, Melanchthon was also an important player in drafting the Augsburg Confessions in 1530. He would be known as “Praeceptor Germaniae” or “Germany’s teacher” for his lifelong dedication to reorganize standards of education for the general public.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Philipp Melanchthon”

11.   (Mourning) Magdeburg

Magdeburg was one of the first cities in medieval Germany to convert from Catholicism to Protestantism. At the city’s request in 1524, Luther gave two sermons which inspired most of the city’s churches to convert to the new Lutheran movement within weeks. As a loyal supporter of Protestantism, Magdeburg was sacked and destroyed by Catholic troops during the Thirty Years’ War. The mourning statue acknowledges the city’s destruction in 1631.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Trauernde Magdeburg 1631”

12.   Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse

Philip I was an important supporter of the early Reformation, and would become leader of The Schmalkaldic League. Formed in 1531, the League’s primary role was to protect lands practicing Reformed church services. His support for the Reformation was for reasons both religious and political. Philip I supported reforms at the 1526 Diet of Speyer, and was a leading “Protestant” at the 1529 Diet of Speyer. At the Diet of Augsburg the following year, Philip I represented the Protestants and supported the creation and reading of the “Augsburg Confessions” drafted by Philipp Melanchthon.

Lutherdenkmal, Reformationsdenkmal, Luther monument, Reformation monument, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

“Philipp der Grossmütige Landgraf von Hessen”


With regional trains, Worms is about 30 minutes from Mannheim and about 80 minutes from Frankfurt am Main (via Mainz or Mannheim). With a short 5-minute walk from Worms Hauptbahnhof (city’s main train station), the Lutherdenkmal memorial is located on a strip of green along the former city wall, and is open to the public free of charge.

2017 is the 500th anniversary of the Reformation (i.e., 95 Theses at Wittenberg’s Castle Church), but many events will occur during the “Luther Decade”, including in 2021 the 500th anniversary of Luther’s trial in Worms. Worms is one of almost 100 cities within an intra-European community project and collaboration called the European Cities of the Reformation.

More

•   City of Worms, in English: summary, in English
•   City of Worms, in German: summary and detailed description
•   About Worms on Luther 2017, in English.
•   About Worms on Germany Tourism, in English.
•   About Worms on Romantic Cities in English and in German.
•   Statues – Hither and Thither (by René & Peter van der Krogt), in English.
•   Regional Geschichte, in German.

Thanks to Tourist Information Worms for arrangements in the city and regional transport beyond, to Bettina Mauer for a guided tour of the city, and to Romantic Germany for their support in various cities along the Rhine river. I made the photos above on 21 and 22 November 2015. This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins.com as http://wp.me/p1BIdT-8zw.

Petrikirche, Taufkirche, Eisleben, Saxony-Anhalt, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, fotoeins.com

Tracing Luther’s steps in 16 German cities (Reformation 500)

FEATURED: “Luther war hier. // Luther was here.” Eisleben, Germany (HL, 27 Oct 2016).

In pre-teen years, I attended a Catholic elementary school by weekday, and a missions-oriented Protestant church by weekend. I already had multiple questions running around my pre-scientist brain, like electrons appearing and dissipating in a fuzzy halo. When various disparate elements began to settle with few satisfying answers, I left behind the churches and their respective religions. But one thing that’s remained is my love of history. History has never been boring, because I carry the past (as offspring of immigrants), and I’m determined to bring history’s lessons into the present.

Even in youth, I had to ask: why was one set of churches called “Protestant”? What was under protest? How did one man help spark a movement that would help merge and create a version of a language that continues today, that would bring accessible means to literacy for the public, and that would begin to change rule by religion to rule by law?

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Juedischer Friedhof, Heiliger Sand, Jewish Cemetery, Holy Sand, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, fotoeins.com

Worms’ Holy Sand: The Rabbi and the Patron

From Worms to Rothenburg, and back to Worms

Located near the entrance to Worms’ old Jewish cemetery are gravestones of two important figures in medieval Jewish-German history. The cemetery is also called “Holy Sand”1, and is one of many places of interest in the medieval ShUM league of Jewish cities. The gravestones for Rabbi Meir ben Baruch (centre) and Alexander ben Salomo (right) are shown in the picture below.

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