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Posts tagged ‘Old Town’

Ludwig Boltzmann, Arkadenhof, Universitaet Wien, University of Vienna, physicist, physics, Vienna, Wien, Oesterreich, Austria, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday at Uni Vienna: Ludwig Boltzmann

I’ve highlighted notable physicists who’ve been memorialized within the Arcade Courtyard in the main building of the University of Vienna:

2 Apr: Lise Meitner;
9 Apr: Christian Doppler, Erwin Schrödinger;
16 Apr: Joseph Littrow, Karl Littrow;
23 Apr: Josef Stefan;
30 Apr: Ludwig Boltzmann.

These are all names whose work and discovery form the historical and scientific basis of my university education in the field of physics.


The inscription for physicist and university professor Ludwig Boltzmann reads:

Ludwig Boltzmann, 1844-1906:
Professor of mathematics, 1873-1876;
Professor of theoretical physics, 1894-1900 and 1902-1906.

Buried in Vienna’s Central Cemetery, Boltzmannn’s gravestone includes the equation for entropy in statistical mechanics and thermodynamics.

S \,=\, k \log W

In collaboration with Josef Stefan, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law describes how an object that absorbs all radiation falling on its surface emits radiative intensity (I, radiation energy per unit time per unit area) that’s proportional to the fourth power in temperature T with constant emissivity ε (between 0 and 1) and Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ.

I \,=\, \epsilon \sigma T^4

Ludwig Boltzmann was also one of Lise Meitner’s professors and advisors at the university. Meitner would become the 3rd woman to receive a doctorate in physics from the University of Vienna, and would go on to describe the process of nuclear fission.

The university’s historical main building is inside the city’s Old Town which has been inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. I made the photo above on 16 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/30-sec, f/5.6, ISO1000, and 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-iGz.

Josef Stefan, Arkadenhof, Universitaet Wien, University of Vienna, physicist, physics, Vienna, Wien, Oesterreich, Austria, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday at Uni Vienna: Josef Stefan

Throughout the month, I’m highlighting notable physicists who’ve been memorialized within the Arcade Courtyard in the main building of the University of Vienna:

2 Apr: Lise Meitner;
9 Apr: Christian Doppler, Erwin Schrödinger;
16 Apr: Joseph Littrow, Karl Littrow;
23 Apr: Josef Stefan;
30 Apr: Ludwig Boltzmann.

These are all names whose work and discovery form the historical and scientific basis of my university education in the field of physics.


The memorial to Josef Stefan (Jožef Štefan) includes a small inscription:

Josef Stefan
Professor of physics, 1863-1893
Born 1835, died 1893

An important physics equation is the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, which describes how an object that absorbs all radiation falling on its surface emits radiative intensity I (radiation energy per unit time per unit area) that is proportional to the fourth power in temperature T; the other two quantities are constants: emissivity ε between 0 and 1, and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ:

I \,=\, \epsilon \sigma T^4

Both Stefan and Boltzmann are buried in Vienna’s Central Cemetery. Boltzmann’s gravestone includes his entropy equation. Stefan does not have his own grave; instead, his descendants in the Munk family have a gravestone.

The university’s historical main building is inside the city’s Old Town which has been inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. I made the photo above on 16 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/60-sec, f/3.2, ISO1000, and 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-iGt.

Josef Johann von Littrow, Karl von Littrow, Universitaet Wien, University of Vienna, physicist, physics, Arkadenhof, Vienna, Wien, Austria, Oesterreich, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday at Uni Vienna: Joseph & Karl Littrow

Throughout the month, I’m highlighting notable physicists who’ve been memorialized within the Arcade Courtyard in the main building of the University of Vienna:

2 Apr: Lise Meitner;
9 Apr: Christian Doppler, Erwin Schrödinger;
16 Apr: Joseph Littrow, Karl Littrow;
23 Apr: Josef Stefan;
30 Apr: Ludwig Boltzmann.

These are all names whose work and discovery form the historical and scientific basis of my university education in the field of physics.


A wall plaque memorializes astronomers Joseph Littrow and (his son) Karl Littrow at left and right, respectively. Joseph was director of the Vienna Observatory from 1819 to 1842; Karl succeeded his father as director from 1842 to 1877.

The Littrow crater on the Moon is named after Joseph, but he’s also best known in physics for his optics inventions: the Littrow prism and the Littrow configuration optimizing the performance of a spectrograph with a specially designed diffraction grating.

The university’s historical main building is inside the city’s Old Town which has been inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. I made the photo above on 16 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/30-sec, f/2.8, ISO1000, and 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-iGr.

Christian Doppler, Erwin Schroedinger, Arkadenhof, Universitaet Wien, University of Vienna, physicist, physics, Vienna, Wien, Oesterreich, Austria, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday at Uni Vienna: Doppler & Schrödinger

This month I’m highlighting notable physicists who’ve been memorialized within the Arcade Courtyard in the main building of the University of Vienna:

2 Apr: Lise Meitner;
9 Apr: Christian Doppler, Erwin Schrödinger;
16 Apr: Joseph Littrow, Karl Littrow;
23 Apr: Josef Stefan;
30 Apr: Ludwig Boltzmann.

These are names whose work and discovery form part of the historical and scientific basis of my university education in the field of physics.


Shown in the image are memorials to Christian Doppler and Erwin Schrödinger at left and right, respectively. My translation to the inscription on the Doppler memorial inscription reads:

Christian Doppler, 1803-1853:
Professor of physics at Vienna University, 1850-1853.
The Doppler principle has ensured the Doppler name for all time.

With his birth house in Salzburg as backdrop, I briefly describe the physics of the Doppler effect.

The Schrödinger memorial highlights an early 20th-century revolution in science in the form of quantum mechanics: the physics of the atom and its constituents. The well-known equation representing Newton’s 2nd Law, “F = ma”, is to classical mechanics, as the following equation is to quantum mechanics.

i \hbar \dot{\psi} \,=\, H \psi

I was able to “localize” the final resting place for Schrödinger and his wife in the Austrian alpine town of Alpbach. The above equation appears on the their grave in Alpbach and on the memorial at the University of Vienna. The equation is a generalized form of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation describing a physical system, represented by ψ, which changes with time.

The university’s historical main building is inside the city’s Old Town which has been inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. I made the photo above on 16 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/60-sec, f/6.4, ISO1000, and 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-iGo.

Lise Meitner, Arkadenhof, Universitaet Wien, University of Vienna, physicist, physics, Vienna, Wien, Oesterreich, Austria, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday at Uni Vienna: Lise Meitner

Throughout the month, I’m highlighting notable physicists who’ve been memorialized within the Arcade Courtyard in the main building of the University of Vienna:

2 Apr: Lise Meitner;
9 Apr: Christian Doppler, Erwin Schrödinger;
16 Apr: Joseph Littrow, Karl Littrow;
23 Apr: Josef Stefan;
30 Apr: Ludwig Boltzmann.

These are all names whose work and discovery form the historical and scientific basis of my university education in the field of physics.


Lise Meitner (1878-1968) was an Austrian physicist whose work with chemist Otto Hahn produced breakthroughs in our understanding of atomic and nuclear physics. Meitner overcame obstacles blocking women from studying and working at universities in the early 20th-century. She wanted to study at the University of Vienna, and thanks to her parents’ support, she studied on her own and successfully passed the university’s entrance examination in 1901. She studied physics over the next five years; physicist Ludwig Boltzmann was one of her instructors and advisors. In 1906, Meitner became the 3rd woman at the university to receive a doctorate in physics (after Olga Ehrenhaft-Steindler and Selma Freund). In 1907, she moved to Berlin where she would stay for over 30 years. In 1926, she became one of the first women appointed to associate professor at Berlin University and the first woman as professor of physics in Germany. Her Jewish lineage meant loss of title and employment, and in mid-1938, a hasty departure from Germany and exile to Sweden. In 1939, she and her nephew physicist Otto Frisch published a short breakthrough paper with their theoretical analysis of the newly discovered process of “nuclear fission” in experiments with uranium and thorium by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. Later, she refused to help with the construction of an atomic bomb and objected to the use of nuclear weapons for the rest of her life.

Like many, I believe Lise Meitner should have been honoured as co-Laureate for the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded solely to Otto Hahn. In mid-2016, the University of Vienna unveiled a monument in her honour.

The university’s historical main building is inside the city’s Old Town which has been inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. I made the photo above on 16 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/60-sec, f/9, ISO1000, and 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-iFJ.

Deutschordenshaus, House of the Teutonic Order, Deutscher Orden, Teutonic Order, Wien, Österreich, Vienna, Austria, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday in Vienna Old Town: Teutonic Order

In central Vienna, the Deutschordenshaus building is the world headquarters for the Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary’s hospital in Jerusalem, also known as the Teutonic Order. The group has roots in the Third Crusade, established as a military hospital near the Mediterranean port city of Acre (Akko/Akka) around 1190 AD/CE. The Order established satellites all over Europe, including Vienna whose presence here was established in the early 13th-century. In 1809, the Order moved its headquarters to Vienna. Graced with 17th- and 18th-century design, the building today houses not only offices, but also its central archives and Treasury (Schatzkammer). As seen on the door in the image above, the Order’s symbol is the Cross of the Teutonic Order (Crux Ordis Teutonicorum), very much like the one visible at the 1st “Deutsches Eck” (German Corner) in Koblenz.

The Teutonic Order building is located within the city’s Old Town which UNESCO inscribed as World Heritage Site in 2001.

Location: Singerstrasse 7. U-Bahn U1 or U3, Stephansplatz.

I made the photo above on 18 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/30-sec, f/6.4, ISO2000, 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-glE.

Türkenkugel, Ottoman cannonball, Am Hof, Wien, Vienna, Austria, Österreich, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday in Vienna Old Town: Ottoman cannonball

And I don’t mean the ’90s alt-rock classic from The Breeders.

What I mean is the gilded cannonball stuck to the side of a building in central Vienna. The shiny gold cannonball is a relic of the attempted and failed siege by military forces of the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire on Vienna in 1683; the name in German “Türkenkugel” is very literal at that (“Turkish cannon ball”). Today, this building is home to Austrian-Italian company Generali, which provides insurance and financial solutions for private customers.

Location: Am Hof 11 (Generali Versicherung AG Geschäftsstelle Am Hof). U-Bahn U3, Herrengasse. Am Hof is located within the city’s Old Town which UNESCO inscribed as World Heritage Site in 2001.

I made the photo above on 20 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/250-sec, f/10, ISO2000, and 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-gls.

O5, St. Stephen's Cathedral, Domkirche St. Stephan, Wien, Österreich, Vienna, Austria, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday in Vienna Old Town: O5

On the exterior wall of St. Stephan’s Cathedral next to the Riesentor/Westportal (giant west gate) is the easily missed and oft-ignored memorial to Austrian resistance in World War 2. A blackened stone block with the barely visible carved “O5” appears on the wall to the right of the Westportal (facing into the church). After Austria’s annexation by the Nazis, the country name was changed from “Österreich” to “Ostmark” and to “Donau- und Alpenreichsgaue” to subsume the once independent nation. The Austrian resistance movement consisted of people who were members of banned and forbidden political parties. Placed on various buildings around the capital city and beyond, “O5” represented “Ö” for Österreich as overt sign of resistance. The capitalized O-umlaut is spelled out as O-E, and E is the fifth letter of the alphabet. Anyone caught making the sign or associated with the group was put to death.

As present-day memorial, the block itself is protected behind a transparent plexiglass shield. Set into the pavement immediately below is a memorial plaque whose inscription translates as: “O5 was the secret symbol of the Austrian resistance against the National Socialist horror regime 1938-1945. This memorial was created in memory of the murdered resistance fighters of the Austrian resistance movement. Installation conducted by President Professor Norbert Macheiner on 5 October 2000. AEIOU: ‘Allen ernstes ist Oesterreich unersetzlich‘ (In all seriousness, Austria is irreplaceable)%.”

St. Stephan’s Cathedral is located within the city’s Old Town which UNESCO inscribed as World Heritage Site in 2001.

Location: Domkirche St. Stephan. U-Bahn U1 or U3, Stephansplatz.

•   Stadt Wien: Widerstandszeichen O5, Gedenktafel Widerstandsgruppe O5.
•   Republik Österreich Parlament: Demokratie Webstatt.
•   Historical Marker Database (English).

% AEIOU is likely the 15th-century Habsburg motto for “Austria rules the world” (Austriae est imperare orbi universo); there are many interpretations.

I made the photo above on 18 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/250-sec, f/5, ISO2000, and 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-fX2.

Karlsplatz, Pavillon Karlsplatz, Wien Museum Otto Wagner Pavillon Karlsplatz, Wien Museum, Otto Wagner, Vienna Modernism, Wiener Moderne, Wien, Vienna, Oesterrich, Austria, fotoeins.com

Fotoeins Friday in Vienna Old Town: Karlsplatz pavilion

The building was designed by famed architect Otto Wagner, and the decorative elements were provided by Joseph Olbrich (who was chief architect of the Secession building nearby). This Karlsplatz pavilion building was part of the celebrated centenary of “Vienna Modernism (Wiener Moderne)” in 2018. The pavilion is typically open April to October. Karlsplatz is located within the city’s Old Town which UNESCO inscribed as World Heritage Site in 2001.

Location: U-Bahn U1, U2, or U4 Karlsplatz.

I made the photo above on 16 May 2018 with a Fujifilm X70 fixed-lens prime and the following settings: 1/500-sec, f/13, ISO500, and 18.5mm focal length (28mm full-frame equivalent). This post appears on Fotoeins Fotografie at fotoeins DOT com as https://wp.me/p1BIdT-gnr.

My Salzburg: Walk of Modern Art (2018)

Thankfully, there’s more to Salzburg than “The Sound of Music”.#

Salzburg is a well-known historical city in north-central Austria next to the border with Germany. For a different way of examining the city that goes beyond the history of the Habsburgs and the music of Mozart, the Walk of Modern Art allows visitors and residents to walk through parts of the city for a mix of historical and contemporary perspectives at street-level and from the cliffs above. The art pieces are placed throughout the city’s Old Town to coincide with key landmarks and sights. The city of Salzburg also provides information about the walk. UNESCO inscribed Salzburg’s Old Town as World Heritage Site in 1996.


( Click here for images and more )

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