Located along the Gera river near the centre of Germany, Erfurt is an historical hub of east-west trade, a stop on the historical road “Via Regia” dating back to the Middle Ages, and is considered a spiritual home for Martin Luther. He left behind plenty of traces throughout the city which is now the capital city for the German state of Thuringia (Landeshauptstadt Thüringens).
Each of the following locations in addition to the Erfurt’s Hauptbahnhof (Central Station) is indicated with an icon in the map below. All 12 stops can be reached with tram routes 3, 4, or 6 (common segment as solid back line), with stops at Anger, Fischmarkt/Rathaus (Fish Market/City Hall), and Domplatz Süd (Cathedral Square South). Click on the arrow-window symbol at the upper-left corner of the map below for additional clarification.
1. Alte Synagoge (Old Synagogue)
Dating back to 1270, this is the oldest surviving synagogue in Central Europe with its roof intact. The building contains a treasury with Jewish artifacts which survived the 14th-century pogrom, including one of three last surviving Jewish wedding rings. The site and the Mikwe as important elements of Jewish life in the Middle Ages are a part of the city’s application for status as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
2. Anger (village green or commons)
‘Anger’ is the German word for a town’s open common space; e.g., the village green or commons. The town was once the centre of woad production and trade. Kaufmannskirche (Merchants’ Church) and ANGER 1 commercial complex are at left and right, respectively.
3. Augustinerkloster (Augustinian Monastery)
Built around 1300, the Augustinian Monastery became home for Martin Luther as a monk from 1505 to 1511. Rooms are available for visitors for overnight stays in a quiet comfortable environment. The site underwent post-war reconstruction after suffering heavy bombing damage.
4. Domplatz (Cathedral Square)
In this southwest view from Domplatz to the top of Domberg hill sit respectively Mariendom or Erfurter Dom (St. Mary’s Cathedral or Erfurt Cathedral, left) and Severikirche (St. Severus’ Church, right). Most of the Cathedral is Gothic by construction from the 14th- and 15th-centuries. Martin Luther was ordained as priest at the Cathedral in 1507.
5. Fischmarkt / Rathaus (Fish Market / Town Hall)
16th-century buildings around the Fischmarkt highlight the wealth brought into the city from trade. With the first hall erected in the 11th-century, the Rathaus (shown at right) was constructed in the neo-Gothic style of the late 19th-century.
The Protestant Kaufmannskirche (Merchants’ Church) was built in the 11th-century by Frisian merchants. Martin Luther preached here in 1522; Johann Sebastian Bach’s parents exchanged wedding vows here in 1668.
7. Kollegium Maius
After post-war reconstruction, this site is where the main building of the old university stood. Depending on the account, Erfurt’s university is either the oldest (1379) or third oldest (1392) university in Germany. At the age of 17, Martin Luther enrolled here as university student in 1501, first in the “seven liberal arts”, and subsequently in law. This location is opposite the Michaeliskirche.
8. Krämerbrücke (Shopkeepers’ Bridge)
Lying along the “Via Regia”, the Krämerbrücke over the Gera river is Europe’s longest bridge entirely covered with inhabited houses.
“Krämerbrücke: Älteste urkundliche Erwähnung als Holzbrücke im Jahre 1117, durch Brand mehrere Male zerstört. In Stein erbaut im Jahre 1325. Die Brücke lag auf der Wegstrecke der Ost-West-Handelstrasse Kiew-Breslau-Erfurt-Frankfurt/Main.” Mentioned in oldest documents as wooden bridge in 1117, destroyed several times by fire. Built with stone in 1325. The bridge lay along the East-West trade route: Kiev, Wroclaw, Erfurt, Frankfurt am Main.
9. Michaeliskirche (St. Michael’s Church)
Built at the end of the 12th-century, St. Michael’s Church was also once the university’s church. Once enrolled as a university student, Martin Luther gave a sermon here in 1522. This location is opposite the Kollegium Maius.
10. Mikwe (Mikveh)
A mikveh is a Jewish immersion bath used for ritual purification. Found near the Krämerbrücke, the baths were discovered and excavated between 2007 and 2011. The baths’ construction and first written record go back to the middle of the 13th-century. As the Mikveh and Synagogue are important elements of a Jewish community, the historical sites are a part of the city’s application for status as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
11. Neue Mühle (New Mill)
Erfurt has traditionally been a city of water mills, with up to 50 along the river Gera. With the first mill constructed at the location in 1255, the building seen here was built in 1826. The present-day site is home to the Neue Mühle Technisches Denkmal und Museum (New Mill Technical Monument and Museum).
12. Zitadelle Petersberg (Petersberg Citadel)
As one of the finest preserved fortresses in Europe, Zitadelle Petersberg (Petersberg Citadel) provides examples of Romanesque, Baroque, and neo-Prussian construction from the 12th through to the 19th century. The Mainzer Rad (Wheel of Mainz) represents the city’s historical, religious, and political association and rule from Mainz.